History of Salzburg. The base development, occurrence of Salzburg

History of Salzburg


Salzburg Coat of Arms

Salzburg Coat of Arms

Homeland legendary Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart -Salzburg - the fourth largest city of Austria and capital of the federal state of Salzburg. The city is located about 300 km from Vienna at the northern foot of the Alps on the picturesque banks of the river Salzach.

It was found during archaeological excavations,that the first settlement on the site of modern Salzburg existed in the Neolithic period. Around the 5th century BC on these lands settled Celts, founded several settlements, communities that around 15 BC, after the occupation of the region by the Romans, were merged into the city Yuvavum. In 45 AD the city received the status of "municipality" and a number of rights and privileges. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city gradually fell into disrepair and by the end of the 7th century, virtually ceased to exist.

The formation of the city

The revival of the city begins in the early 8thcentury after Bavarian Duke Theodoric granted abandoned land to Bishop Rupert, who built the monastery of St. Peter. Around the monastery itself, and subsequently grew into the town, called "Salzburg" (Latin for "salt castle"). In 739, the city became the episcopal residence, and later archbishopric. Bishop Rupert was later canonized and today revered as the patron saint of Salzburg.

In 1077 on top overlooking the citysteep hill began the construction of the famous castle of Salzburg - Hohensalzburg. For centuries the castle was rebuilt and expanded several times and today is one of the largest preserved to our times of medieval castles in Europe.

In 1278 was the Archbishopric of SalzburgIt recognized sovereign principality of the Holy Roman Empire, but only in the 14th century gained full independence from Bavaria. Violent outbreak of plague in the 14th century took almost a third of the city population.

Middle Ages

The economy was based on centuries of Salzburgproduction and sale of salt. In the 15th century, actively begin to develop a variety of handicrafts, and in 1492 opened the first brewery Stiegl-Brauwelt (today - one of the most popular attractions of the city). But after a few years of starting social unrest have become in fact a prelude to the Reformation. The ensuing riots among the peasants led in 1525 to a three-month siege of Hohensalzburg. After stabilization of the situation the city was rapidly developing, peaking in the 17-18 centuries. Under the strict supervision of Italian architects Salzburg became one of the best examples of European Baroque.

In 1803, during the Napoleonic wars withinGerman mediatization Archbishopric became part of the Electorate of Salzburg, and in 1805, after the signing of the peace of Pressburg, the former archbishopric land became part of the Austrian Empire. In 1809 Salzburg moved to the Kingdom of Bavaria, and in 1816 by the decision of the Congress of Vienna returned to Austria, becoming in 1850 the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg. Since 1868 the Principality has officially been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, remaining "crown land" of the Austrian Empire.

Twentieth Century

As a result of defeat in World War I.Austro-Hungarian Empire disintegrated and Salzburg became part of the new Republic of German-Austria, and in 1919, after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles became a member of the First Austrian Republic. In March 1938, as a result of the Anschluss under the control of the Germans appeared and Salzburg. During World War II the city was bombed several times, but despite the fact that almost half of Salzburg was destroyed, much of its historic center remains intact. The city was liberated by US forces May 5, 1945.

Today Salzburg is considered one of thethe most beautiful cities of Austria. Perfectly preserved to this day the historic center of Salzburg ( "Old Town") is a fine example of Baroque architecture and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Salzburg Pictures

  • Salzburg Coat of Arms

    Salzburg Coat of Arms

  • A view of Salzburg and the fortress Hohensalzburg

    A view of Salzburg and the fortress Hohensalzburg

  • Mirabell Palace

    Mirabell Palace

  • Leopoldskron Palace

    Leopoldskron Palace

  • Salzburg Cathedral

    Salzburg Cathedral

  • The house where Mozart was born

    The house where Mozart was born

  • A view of Salzburg and the fortress Hohensalzburg

    A view of Salzburg and the fortress Hohensalzburg

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