History of Baku
Located on the Caspian Sea coastthe southern part of Absheron peninsula Baku - the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as financial, industrial, cultural and scientific center of the country.
The results of archaeological researchIt proves that the settlements in the area of modern Baku existed since prehistoric times. The exact date of the appearance of the city to date has not been established. It is likely that in the time of the Abbasid Caliphate Baku, which was located at the crossroads of important trade routes, is quite a large shopping center.
In the second half of the 9th century, the weakeningthe central authority of the caliphate led to the creation of a number of independent states, including the state of Shirvanshahs, a part of which was and Baku. In addition to the strategically advantageous geographical location, growth and development of the city, of course, it is largely facilitated by the existence of oil fields and the climate. Residents of the city are actively engaged in trade, crafts, gardening, fishing and oil production, and by the end of the 10th century, Baku became one of the most important cities of Shirvan and was known far beyond its borders.
In the late 11th - early 13th century Baku prospered. During this period, the city grew up around the massive defensive walls, the reliability of which has been strengthened by a deep moat. From the sea, the city had extra protection in the form of a powerful fleet, the development of which has been given special attention. In 1191, the city of Shamakhi (Shamakhi) was completely destroyed by a powerful earthquake, and temporarily became the capital Baku Shirvanshah State.
The invasion of the Mongols in the land of Shirvan in the 13th centuryWe had negative consequences for Baku. After a long siege, the city fell and was ruthlessly destroyed and looted. Trade declined, and stalled oil production. Restore the positions of Baku was able only to the mid-14th century. The 15th century was the era for the city of enormous economic expansion. Built in the period of the palace complex of Shirvanshah preserved to this day and is an important historical and architectural monument and part of the UNESCO World Heritage List.
In 1501 the troops of Shah Ismayil conquered the city andBaku became a part of the Safavid state. In the second half of the 16th - early 17th century, during a time Baku was under Turkish control of the Turkish-Persian wars, but in 1607 Safavids still managed to return to Baku. The subsequent strengthening of the central authority, the termination of devastating wars and feudal strife served as an impetus for further growth and development of the city.
Nineteenth and twentieth century
By the early 18th century, the strategic position of Bakuand its natural resources is growing interest on the part of Russian Empire. By decree of Peter I, seeking to oust the Turks and Persians and become the rightful owner of the Caspian Sea, have equipped a special naval expedition, and after a long siege in June 1723 the imperial troops succeeded in capturing Baku. However, the confrontation with Iran, and continued every year to maintain the occupied territories had become increasingly difficult. In 1735 between the Russian Empire and Iran signed a peace treaty Ganja and Baku was again under the control of the Persians. In the mid-18th century on the territory of modern Azerbaijan it was formed several khanates including Baku khanate with the center in Baku.
In 1806, during the Russian-Persian wars(1804-1813) Russian troops reoccupied Baku. After signing in 1813 Treaty of Gulistan Baku Khanate officially became part of the Russian Empire. However, the treaty does not allow all the contradictions and in 1826 a new conflict broke out between Russia and Iran, which put an end to the so-called Treaty of Turkmenchay (1828), following the signing of a military confrontation that finally stopped and the area began to rapidly grow. Baku became the center of Baku district, a part of which was then included in the Shemakha province. In 1859, after a strong earthquake Shemakha province was abolished, and the Baku province with its center in Baku was established instead. By the end of the 19th century, Baku became one of the largest industrial, economic and cultural center not only of the Caucasus, but the whole of the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union.
In 1988-1990 gg. Baku became the epicenter of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict that peaked in January 1990 and went down in history as "Black January" ( "Bloody January").
In 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan has becomeindependent state and its capital Baku. Today, the city recovered after a prolonged economic and social crisis of the post-Soviet period, has changed dramatically, and is undergoing "a renaissance".