History of Marseille
Coat of arms of Marseille
Marseille - a city in the south of France on the shores of the Gulf of Lions near the mouth of the Rhône River. It is the second largest city in France and the largest commercial port of the Mediterranean.
Earth Marseille and its surroundings were inhabited moreabout 30 thousand. years ago, which is confirmed by the ancient cave paintings found in the cave Cosquer. The oldest drawings date from about 27,000 years. BC. and relate to gravettian, and later - 19,000 years. BC. and the characteristic of the Solutrean culture. Recent excavations near the train station and found the remains of the brick houses of the Neolithic, dating back 6000 years. BC.
The base and flourishing city
The history of the modern Marseilles begins about600 BC The city was founded by Greek colonists from Phocaea (now the Turkish city of Foca) and called Massalia. Pretty soon, the city has become one of the largest shopping centers of the ancient world and had its own coinage. Marseilles prosperity peaked in the 4th century BC In those days, the area surrounded by walls Marseilles is about 50 hectares, and its population numbered about six thousand. People. The economy was mainly export local products (wine, salted pork and fish, aromatic and medicinal plants, corals, cork, etc.). A native of Marseilles was a famous Greek geographer and explorer Pytheas.
Strong alliance with the Romans for a long time providedMarseilles protection, as well as an additional market. During the Roman civil wars are also known in history as the Civil War Caesar (49-45 gg.do BC) Massalia supported Optimates led by Gnaeus Pompey, and as a result, after a long siege in the autumn of '49 BC, It was captured by the troops of Julius Caesar. Massalia lost its independence and became part of the Roman Republic. In the 1st century AD born in the city of Christianity, as evidenced by found near the harbor catacombs, as well as notes of Roman martyrs. In the 1st century and was founded by the Diocese of Marseille.
The collapse of the Roman Empire is not much affectedMarseille. In contrast to many cities and provinces, previously owned by the Empire, Marseille still continued to slowly grow. In the 5th century the city was dominated by the Visigoths, under the control of which has become an important Christian intellectual center, as early as the 6th century, it was again one of the largest shopping centers in the Mediterranean. The attacks on the Franks in 739 Marseille, under the direction of Charles Martel led to a sharp economic downturn, recovered from which the city could not for a long time. Do not contribute to the restoration of Marseille in the next 150 years and the repeated incursions of the Greeks and Saracens.
A new era began for Marseille in the 10th century. City rather quickly regained its economic and trade relations. At the beginning of the 13th century Marcel becomes a republic. In 1262 the city rebelled against the domination of Anjou-Sicily home, but the rebellion was brutally strangled by Charles I of Anjou. In the mid-14th century Marseille suffered several outbreaks of bubonic plague of the strongest, and in 1423 plundered by the troops of Aragon crown.
By the mid-15th century, the economy of MarseilleIt has stabilized to a large extent thanks to the patronage of the Count of Provence Rene d'Anjou, who considered the city as a strategic naval base and an important trade center. He gave the city a number of privileges and initiated the construction of fortifications. In 1481, Marseille Provence has teamed up with, and in 1482 became part of the French kingdom.
In the following centuries, despite someexcitement, Marseille continued to grow and develop. 1720 brought the city the epidemic of bubonic plague, known in history as the "Great Plague of Marseille." The epidemic spread rapidly through the city and claimed tens of thousands of lives. The city was quarantined, and all trade relations terminated. Yet again, the city was able to recover in record time and not only to restore the old commercial ties, but also to establish new ones.
Residents of Marseille with enthusiasticFrench Revolution (1789-1799). Formed Marseilles Volunteer Regiment went to Paris, on the road singing a revolutionary anthem, which was later called the "Marseillaise" and became the national anthem of France.
In the 19th century in Marseille actively implementedindustrial innovation, and manufacturing developed. The rapid growth of the French Empire after 1830 and contributed to the active development of maritime trade, which, in fact, has always been the foundation of the city of well-being and the guarantee of its prosperity.
The First World War did not actually affectedMarseille, while during the Second World War the city was occupied by the Germans and was bombed repeatedly. Nevertheless, the post-war Marseille was able to cope with the devastation, economic problems and rising crime, as a result of becoming an important economic, industrial, cultural and research center of France.
Pictures of Marseille
- Coat of arms of Marseille
- Marseille in 1575
- View of the Old Port
- View of the port of Marseille
- Cathedral of Notre-Dame de la Garde
- Longchamp Palace - Museum of Fine Arts
- faience Museum