History of Berlin
Berlin - the capital and largest city in Germany and one of the largest and most densely populated cities in Europe.
The history of Berlin begins with two smallsettlements in the Margraviate of Brandenburg - Berlin (Berlin Altberlin or Old), located on the east bank of the River Spree, and Cologne - on the island Shpreeinzel (northern tip of the island today known as Museum Island), presumably based in the late 12th century. Officially, however, the reference point of the beginning of the modern history of Berlin is considered to be 1237, which corresponds to the first written mention of Cologne (the first written references date back to the year 1244 of the Old Berlin).
The heyday of the city
For a long time, Berlin and Cologne, between the supporta fairly close economic and social ties is a separate and completely autonomous administrative units. Concluded between them in 1307, Union marked the beginning of a common foreign policy, with each of the towns still had its own internal self-government. In 1360, Berlin, Cologne became a member of the Hanseatic League. By 1432 Berlin and Cologne had actually been in one piece (albeit, the final unification of the official level took place only in 1709). In the middle of the 15th century, became the main residence of the Brandenburg Margraves, Berlin was forced to give up the status of the Free Hanseatic City. In 1539, Berlin officially adopted Lutheranism.
As a result of the infamous Thirty YearsWar (1618-1648) the city was completely destroyed and its population reduced by almost half. It became in 1640 the Elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William (better known to history as the Great Elector of Brandenburg) strongly contributed to the influx of immigrants and different rare religious tolerance, which led to a sharp increase in the population of Berlin, and, of course, reflected in the cultural development of the city. Significantly expanded and Berlin border.
Berlin - the capital
In 1701, the Elector of Brandenburg was crownedas the King of Prussia and Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia. A significant contribution to the development of Berlin has made ascended the Prussian throne in 1740, Frederick II (Frederick the Great), and by the end of the 18th century the city became one of the largest centers of the Enlightenment in Europe.
The 19th century was very favorable forBerlin Development (even during the French occupation of the city received the right to self-government and actively developed). Berlin embraced real industrial boom, which led to rapid economic growth. Important reforms have been undertaken in the field of education.
In 1871, Berlin became the capital of the GermanEmpire, then the capital of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), and since coming to power in 1933, the National Socialists and the capital of Nazi Germany. After World War II, Berlin was divided into four sectors among the Allies - the US, Britain, France and the USSR, which subsequently led to the creation of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), and in fact inflame the Cold War.
In 1961, by the decision of the government of EastGermany just a few days was built the ill-famous Berlin Wall, it is divided into several decades, not only the city and country, but also many German families. Wall has served as the state border and guarded accordingly. Get permission entitling to cross the border was quite difficult and close people, being by fate in different states, for almost three decades were actually deprived of the possibility to communicate with each other. In 1989, the Berlin Wall was torn down. The city and the country reunited, marking the beginning of a new era in the history of Berlin and Germany.