History of Munich
Munich - the third largest city in Germany after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the capital of the federal state of Bavaria.
The first written mention of the town date back to1158 year, and it is from this time dates back the history of Munich. By 1175 around the settlement were built massive defensive walls, and Munich officially received the status of "city".
In 1180, as a result of the trial,initiated by the king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, the Duke of Saxony and Bavaria Henry the Lion has lost a large part of their lands and became Duke of Bavaria Otto I von Wittelsbach, Munich was also transferred to the control of the Bishop of Freising. However, already in 1240 in Munich moved under the control of Otto II von Wittelsbach. In 1255, after the Bavarian section of the city became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria and remained in the possession of the Wittelsbach dynasty until 1918.
In 1314 Duke Louis IV of a kindWittelsbach became King of Germany, and in 1328 was crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and gave Munich 'salt monopoly ", thus providing the city a significant additional income. Despite several devastating fires and some disorders caused discontent of citizens, Munich rapidly grew and developed. In 1506, Bavaria merged, and Munich became its capital.
In the 16th century the city became a major culturalcenter, as well as the center of the German Counter-Reformation. An important event in the history of Munich and this period was the foundation in 1589 of the Court Hofbräuhaus brewery, which today is one of the world's most famous beer restaurant with beer garden, and one of the main attractions of Munich.
In 1609, at the initiative of Duke Maximilian IBavaria Munich Catholic League, which later played an important role in the initial stage of the so-called Thirty Years War (1618-1648) for hegemony in Europe was founded. In 1632, the troops of the King of Sweden Gustav II Adolf occupied Munich, and the former had already Empire Elector Maximilian I was expelled from the city. After just two years of severe outbreaks of bubonic plague have taken almost a third of the population of Munich. In 1648, the Thirty Years' War ended with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia, and Munich is back under the control of the Elector of Bavaria.
The nineteenth and twentieth century
In 1806, after the collapse of the Holy RomanEmpire Bayern Munich became the capital of the Kingdom. In general, the 19th century saw the city for the rapid industrialization and the rapid cultural development. Significantly changed during this period and the architectural appearance of the city.
In 1914, with the outbreak of the First World Warcity came the hunger and devastation, and already in 1916 in Munich was badly damaged in the bombing of the French aviation. Very heavy and turned out to be the post-war period. Munich became the center of political unrest and it was here in 1923, held the so-called "Beer Hall Putsch" (led by the National Socialist Adolf Hitler and General Ludendorff), whose goal was to seize power and overthrow the Weimar Republic.
On the eve of the Second World War, Munichactually it became the headquarters of the Nazis and subsequently entered into the history of the infamous "Munich Agreement" (1938), under which Czechoslovakia owned Sudetenland was handed over to Germany. However, the former is essentially Nazi stronghold of Munich and became one of the important centers of the various resistance movements, including the "White Rose" underground student organization. During the war, the city was repeatedly bombed and was completely destroyed.
Today Munich - large industrial, culturaland a research center. Munich is also home to the world-famous Oktoberfest, which by its magnitude among the activities of this kind is unique and attracts millions of visitors from all over the world.