The history of Vyborg
Coat of arms of Vyborg
Vyborg - the ancient city of Leningrad region. Some historical sources tell of living in the area of Vyborg Korela tribe, the ancestors of modern Karelian. These tribes together with Novgorod traded with the Hanseatic merchants. The excavations, conducted by Finnish first and then Russian archaeologists suggest that in the XI-XII centuries in the Castle (formerly oxen) island located goods stores and a small fort to protect these warehouses. The location of this prison was very beneficial, as it controlled the route from the Gulf of Finland in Vuoksa River and on to Lake Ladoga, and from there to the famous route "from the Vikings to the Greeks."
In 1293, by decision of the Swedish king regenton the island it was founded under the name of Vyborg Castle, which became a reliable outpost for further spread of the Swedes on the Karelian Isthmus. In 1403 it receives the status of the city of Vyborg, in this regard, it is quickly becoming a major trading center, strengthened trade links with the Hanseatic League. In 1470, on a peninsula sprawling city was surrounded by stone ramparts and towers, ramparts and a moat filled with water.
In 1525, a German Count von Goya marriedsister of the Swedish king Gustav Vasa and was a dowry town of Vyborg. In the city there are the rich immigrants from the Hanseatic cities. Lübeck, Bremen, Hamburg and others in the XVI century to the old town was added Horned castle and other buildings, increased the urban area almost doubled. In the XVII century the city, built mostly wooden buildings, badly damaged by fire. In 1639, by order of the Swedish government A.Torstenson engineer developing a new plan for the city with a rectangular street grid.
During Vyborg Northern War was the chiefSwedish outpost on the Karelian Isthmus. Several attempts of Peter I capture this fortress city failed. Only in 1710 the city was taken, and in 1721 at Vyborg Nystadt peace treaty officially became part of the Russian Empire. Residents of the new province helped to keep the Swedish law, which meant that serfdom on the inhabitants of the region did not apply. In addition, the Lutheran faith was permitted.
In 1731 there is the need to buildnew fortifications to the west. These fortifications are built with the latest technology to give the name of St. Anne - Annensky Heights. Sweden has repeatedly tried to return Vyborg. During the Russian-Swedish war of 1788-1790. there were major sea battles, but the war ended with a peace treaty, under which Finland became part of the Russian Empire in the Grand Duchy of Rights.
After the uprising of the Decembrists in Petersburg in 1825 prisoners of Vyborg Castle are a few hundred participants, mostly the lower ranks.
Finland's independence was declared afterOctober Revolution, 31 December 1917. In Finland, the time Vyborg retained his position - the second city of the country. But in 1939 the Soviet Union attacked Finland and the Soviet-Finnish war. In February 1940, was broken Mannerheim Line (the main protective strengthening), and March 13, the military actions were terminated in accordance with the agreement signed in Moscow. Under this agreement, most of the province of Vyborg, including Vyborg and the whole Karelian Isthmus, ceded to the Soviet Union.
In the summer of 1941 in Vyborg again came the war. August 21, 1941 the Red Army left the city. The city began to return the Finnish population. But in June 1944 in Vyborg re-entered the Soviet army. The war caused great damage to the city, the factories were destroyed, hospitals and more than 500 homes. But in the 50-60-ies of new enterprises, increasing population, restored architectural monuments, opens museum.
In 2008, according to the results of All-Russian competition "The Most Comfortable City of Russia" Vyborg is the second largest city with a population of 100 thousand inhabitants.
Photos of Vyborg
Coat of arms of Vyborg
Vyborg in 1709