History of Dubrovnik
Located on the Croatian Adriatic coast Dubrovnik - a major seaport and one of the most popular Mediterranean resorts.
Until recently it was thought that the storyDubrovnik began with a small settlement of Ragusa on a small, separated from the mainland by a relatively narrow channel, a rocky islet, which in the first half of the 7th century, has become a haven for refugees from the destroyed as a result of the invasion of Avars and Slavs, neighboring Epidavruma (today Cavtat). The latter archaeological excavations suggest that the settlement existed on the island since ancient times.
After a while, almost oppositethe island at the foot of the mountain there was a Croatian village Srdzhi Dubrovnik, probably got its name from the dense oak woods growing here. Dubrovnik grew quickly and in the 9th century two settlements actually become one. Sharing Ragusa Dubrovnik and the channel was completely drained in about 11-12 centuries, and in its place had been laid Stradun - the main street of the Old Town and one of the favorite places for walking, for locals and guests of Dubrovnik. Although for centuries in wide use both names have visited the city, still predominantly found "Ragusa" in historical documents. The name "Dubrovnik" city officially received only in 1918.
For a long time, Dubrovnik was under protectorateByzantium, while having all the same relative autonomy, allowing yourself to take a number of decisions and regulate the domestic political and economic processes. In general, the Byzantine rule favorably affected the formation of the city as a major shopping center. Actively developed in this period in Dubrovnik and shipbuilding.
In 1205 the city was under the control of Venice,who tried to maximally concentrate all power in his hands. Venetian rule lasted a little more than 150 years. In 1358 a peace treaty was signed Zadar (also known as the Treaty of Zara), according to which Dubrovnik, together with other coastal lands of Dalmatia, known by the time the municipality of Ragusa, under the control of the Hungarian-Croatian crown. Soon, the commune became a republic in which the status and lasted until 1808.
It is only under the nominal control of the firstHungarian-Croatian crown, and since 1458 the Ottoman Empire, observing neutrality and demonstrating the wonders of diplomacy, the Republic of Ragusa, the administrative center of Dubrovnik has become virtually independent maritime power, the peak of which flourished in the 15-16th century.
In the 17th century the economy of the Republic of Ragusa hasthere was quite a significant decline, which contributed greatly to the crisis in Mediterranean shipping. In 1667, Dubrovnik has experienced the strongest earthquake completely destroyed the city and killed thousands of human lives. The city soon restored, but to recover and regain its former influence, he was unable to.
In 1806, the French occupied Dubrovnik. In 1808 it was abolished, and its lands, the Republic of Ragusa (including Dubrovnik) became part of the Illyrian Provinces. In 1814, the Austrians and the British ousted the French from the city, and already in 1815 by the decision of the Congress of Vienna Dubrovnik joined the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which controlled and remained until 1918 as part of the crown lands of the Kingdom of Dalmatia. With the fall of the Austro-Hungarian town became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (from 1929 - the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), and in 1939 became part of the Banovina of Croatia.
During the Second World War the city wasoccupied first by the Italian and then German troops. In 1945 he became a member of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as part of the Croatian People's Republic.
In 1991, Croatia declared itsindependence, as a result turned into a powerful military conflict. For nearly seven months, Dubrovnik was under siege by the troops of the Yugoslav People's Army, and was bombed repeatedly, inflicting colossal damage to the city, including its historic center. Unfortunately, it was not without casualties. After the end of hostilities began the long process of rebuilding the city. Extensive construction and restoration work was completed only in 2005.