Iceland has a number of islands, includingthe most important is the eponymous island. The local population prefers to live on the island, on the rest of the land is a tiny towns and fishing villages. Iceland is the second largest among the European islands. The country is located near the Arctic Circle. Next door is the cold Greenland, Iceland, but the climate is mild. The islands are home to Iceland Icelanders living, who are descendants of the Scandinavians. There are also Danes and Norwegians. The main financial, business and cultural center of the island nation - the city of Reykjavik. It is considered the most northern capital of the world.
Islands Iceland - are active volcanoes and majorglaciers. On the main island celebrated the constant volcanic activity. Near the southern coast of the country, in the Atlantic Ocean, located Vestmanskie island. As part of the archipelago of 15 large islands, several small islands, cliffs and rocks. Among them is the only inhabited island of Heimaey. Its area is 13 square meters. km. The only city of the island - well-maintained and beautiful Westman. Heimaey has a second name - "Northern Pompeii" as the strongest eruption Eldfella volcano, which occurred in 1973, caused metamorphoses - all the buildings of the town were covered with ash, and the population had to be completely evacuated.
Iceland Island include in its membership a miraclenorthern nature - the island of Surtsey, which arose as a result of the activity of an underwater volcano. The basis of the island has become a solid rock formed from lava. On the border of the Arctic Circle, is the island of Grimsey. Since it is possible to see such natural phenomena as the polar night and day.
Icelandic land covered with low plantsor no vegetation. The soil is formed by volcanic ash, which is carried by the wind. In Iceland, the climate conditions, the plants require a lot of time for the settlement of a mineral soil. In past centuries, the islands were birch forests. But human activity has led to their disappearance. Today, the country is growing dwarf birch, mainly in mountainous areas. In coastal waters there are seals and whales. The islands are rich in birds. On the territory of Iceland there are 66 species of birds. In the winter here the birds from other regions.
In spite of the geographical situation of the country,climate more mild than severe. Islands Iceland experiencing strong influence of the warm Gulf Stream. But the weather is changeable, as close to the polar air masses oppose Atlantic. Constant winds - is the distinguishing feature of the islands. Record on force winds were recorded on the island Vestmannayr.