History of Sochi
Sochi is a resort town on the Black Sea coast in the Krasnodar Territory (Russia). Archaeological research shows that people lived on the lands of modern Sochi even in the prehistoric period. The very first written mentions of the existence of settlements here belong to the ancient era and are found in the works of such famous ancient Greek authors as Skilak, Strabo, Aristotle, Herodotus and others..
The conquest of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire (official name at that time «Russian kingdom») began, in fact, in the 17th century with the Russian-Persian wars and later led to a series of military conflicts that stretched over several centuries. Since the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, most of which belonged to Circassia, was undoubtedly of particular interest to the Russian Empire, the Russo-Circassian War (1763-1864) was perhaps the most important stage in the history of the conquest of the Caucasus. The active desire of the Russian Empire to expand its possessions led in 1817 to another escalation of the conflict, which went down in history as the Caucasian War (1817-1864). The occupation of the Caucasus during this period took place against the backdrop of the wars of the Russian Empire with the Persians and Turks..
Sochi - a fortified outpost
As a result of the Russian-Turkish War (1828-1829), which ended with the defeat of the Ottoman Empire and the signing of the Adrianople Peace Treaty, the Black Sea coastline was ceded to the Russian Empire. The indigenous peoples inhabiting the region did not accept the treaty and continued fierce resistance. In order to strengthen the coastline as much as possible, in order to avoid interference in the Caucasian affairs of the British and Ottoman empires and to prevent the supply of weapons and food to the warring Circassians, a number of Russian outposts have grown on the coast. One of these fortifications was Alexandria, from which, in fact, the history of modern Sochi begins..
The construction of Fort Alexandria began in April 1838 at the mouth of the Sochi River. The fort got its name in honor of the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, but a year later it was renamed «Navaginsky Fort». During the Crimean War (1853-1856), the garrison based in Navaginsky was evacuated to Novorossiysk, but the fort itself quickly fell into decay. In March 1864, the dilapidated Navaginsky fort was rebuilt and renamed «Dakhovsky post» (from 1874 - Dakhovsky Posad).
At the end of the Caucasian War, the mass settlement of the coastal region by immigrants from different parts of the Russian Empire, initiated by Emperor Alexander II, began (a significant part of the indigenous population by this time had been destroyed or exiled to Turkey). Around the fort «Dakhovsky post» the settlement grew rather quickly, which received the name in 1896 «Sochi».
Sochi - resort
At the beginning of the 20th century, Sochi began to develop as a resort. The first Sochi resort «Caucasian Riviera» was opened in June 1909. In 1917, Sochi officially received the status of a city. The development of the city was somewhat slowed down by the civil war, but at its end the city continued its formation as an all-Union health resort. In the 30s, the General Plan for the reconstruction of Sochi was approved. The volume of capital investments in the creation of a powerful sanatorium-resort base amounted to more than 1 billion rubles.
In July 2007, Sochi was declared the venue for the 2014 Winter Olympics. It seemed that Sochi, located in the zone of humid subtropics, was completely unsuitable for holding winter games, but despite everything, the grandiose project was nevertheless implemented, dramatically changing the architectural appearance of the city and significantly improving its infrastructure.